Fischers and Horneys Come to America

A lot of times the sources used while researching the family history are confusing and/or have a lot of errors. Or it could be that I’m just ignorant of what was going on at the time and the source information is accurate, but it just doesn’t make sense without some crucial bit of knowledge. Sometimes you have to delve into the history of the times just to figure out what is going on with your ancestors.

One good example of this is the birthplaces of my Fischer and Horney ancestors (on my dad’s dad’s side of the family).  One great great great grandfather, Eustache Fischer, came to America around 1889 while my other 3rd great grandfather, Nicolas Horney, came in 1860. Both of their families ended up in Goliad County, Texas. The families MAY have known each other before they came to America because Nicolas was married to a Fischer in 1849; but this is conjecture at this point.

The interesting thing to note about many of these men’s children is that the place where they report their birth country changes over the various census dates. And this is confusing if you’re trying to keep accurate information.

Every 10 years the US government holds a census where it keeps track of the country’s population with a few questions asked of every person in the country at the time.  Two questions consistently asked is when and where you are born.

Selestine Horney (Eustache’s son) eventually married Isabelle Fischer (Nicolas’ daughter) about 1890 in Goliad County, Texas.  But let’s figure out where they were born (the information here was taken from the various censuses):

Census Selestine Isabelle
1870 France Moved to USA in late 1880s.
1880 France
1900 Germany Germany
1910 Germany France
1920 France France
1930 Died in 1929. France
1940 France

The records for the 1890 were destroyed in a fire; so there is no information for that census.

Now you’d think people would know where they were born; so why is this so confusing?  It also gets a little weird when you look at other aspects of the questions asked and answered in some of the censuses.

The 1920 census asks where each person was born and what their mother (original) language was spoken at home. The response for Isabelle and Selestine (his name is misspelled in the census): Born in France, Speak German!! Now what the heck are we supposed to make out of that?

Eventually I came across a form for Isabelle called the “Alsace-Lorraine, France Citizenship Declarations (Optants), 1872”.  I had to do some reading on Ancestry.com to figure out what this was about; but, before we get into that, we need a little bit of history.

This Alsace-Lorraine region had been under frequent contention between Germany and France.  As an article at Wikipedia.com states, France wanted the Alsace-Lorraine area because it was geographically a part of France. Germany, on the other hand, said it should be part of that country since most of the inhabitants spoke German!   Ahhh – so that’s where the French birth location with German as the mother tongue came from for Isabelle and Selestine.

It turns out that, following the Franco-Prussian War (Jul 1870 – May 1871), the Alsace-Lorraine region of land was transferred from France to Germany.  And it was part of Germany until the end of the First World War when it was ceded back to France in 1918. So, from 1870 and before and 1920 and later this was France while during the 1880-1910 census this area was German.

This whole thing must have been confusing to the census takers who likely weren’t well versed in the history of the area; and, to make matters worse, they were getting answers from German speakers that said they were from France.

Now, back to the Citizenship Declarations (Optants) form.  If people were in the area after “ownership” of the Alsace-Lorraine region was transferred from France to Germany, they had to change their citizenship from French to German. They could declare that they would maintain their French citizenship which would then be published in bulletins. If they chose to remain French, they had to immigrate to France (many of them immigrated to American instead).

So, two siblings could have been born in the same house – yet be from two different countries. In 1870 they would have been born in France; in 1872 they would have been born in Germany.

After all of that you might be thinking – wow – good thing that doesn’t happen in the good ole US of A.  Wrong!  It does.  In the early days, state borders and county borders changed!  This is not as drastic; but if you’re doing research and know that your ancestor was born in one county – but you go look him up at the county courthouse – you might not find him.

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Johann Matthias Flach – Revolutionary War Veteran

So far, I’ve found a few ancestors of mine that fought in the Revolutionary War – and Johann Matthias Flach (aka Mathias Flaugh) was the first I found.  I wasn’t the first to find him though, a family genealogist (Sara E. Flaugh) in the past did some major work and actually traced him back to Germany.

Johann Matthias Flach Photo Source: Find A Grave - Dick Flaugh (#46573241)
Johann Matthias Flach
Photo Source: Find A Grave – Dick Flaugh (#46573241)

It turns out that Mathias (that’s what I’ll call him because most of his military paperwork goes by that), was born of a baker in Rimhorn, Germany in 1752. But he never met his dad, since he died a few weeks before Mathias was born.

The next we see of Mathias is him coming to America via Rotterdam on the ship Union on September 27, 1773. And we can see that he was registered on October 4, 1773 as an indentured servant to a John Peter in Philadelphia for 3 years and 3 months for a total of 20£ (pounds).

Wikipedia states that Indentured servitude was a labor system whereby young people paid for their passage to the New World by working for an employer for a certain number of years. It was widely employed in the 18th century in the British colonies in North America and elsewhere.

But… I think he paid off his debt early or John Peter let him go; because he joined the Continental Army on July 13, 1776. Most of the file in the previous link are several pieces of correspondence discussing Mathias and his service. Pages 8, 9, & 34 basically summarize the entire file. He was originally under Colonel Nicholas Haussegger (check out his story – turns out he was thought to have been a traitor at one point) and he fought in these battles:

  • Trenton – January 2, 1777 (Interesting that Mathias was a Hessian and he fought in America’s first major victory against Hessian troops).
  • Brandywine – September 11, 1777 (Our side wasn’t victorious all the time – we lost this battle).
  • Germantown – October 4, 1777 (And we lost this battle).
  • Monmouth – June 28, 1778 (This one seems to be mostly a draw until the British withdrew from the battle at night).
  • Sullivan’s Expedition against the Iroquois – Summer of 1779 (Continued fighting against Tory Loyalists and the Iroquois Confederacy).

We know he survived because he got his final pay in June of 1791.

We can also find that he had a land warrant for 100 acres that was surveyed in Apr 1793 in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania. Sometime after this (by the 1800 Census) he had moved to Crawford County, Pennsylvania. Later, in 1818, he started receiving a pension for his war service while living in Crawford, Pennsylvania. Thankfully, even his wife continued to get the pension as can be seen by this Congressional report in 1838.

After the war (from 1783 to 1803) he and his wife, Anna (Arnold) Flach, had at least six children. He is buried in Peiffer Cemetery in Saegertown, Pennsylvania. And, over 250 years later, his ancestors are still going strong!

John Mathias Flaugh Photo Source: Find A Grave - Barbara Wykoff (#47759591)
John Mathias Flaugh
Photo Source: Find A Grave – Barbara Wykoff (#47759591)

Cliff Collins – WW2 Merchant Marine

Some times our family history is tied to oral traditions (which sometimes become legends) and this makes it interesting to find the facts through research.  For example, one of our surnames is Johnson (my mother’s mother’s mother was a Johnson). Therefore, mom used to say that we were related to President Andrew Johnson.  Well, I haven’t come across that connection yet – and don’t really expect to.

Another example of finding the facts from verbal knowledge concerns my grandpa Cliff Collins. His two sons and my dad know much of his merchant marine story – except they all remember it just a bit differently from each other.

So this is what I’ve found…

Information that looks like this is what I found while doing the research.


Merchant Marine Academy Photo of Clifford Collins
Merchant Marine Academy Photo of Clifford Collins

As recollected by his sons…

He started the war as a carpenter working at several military bases through-out the southwest, including Fort Huachuca, AZ, Tooele, UT (Dugway proving grounds), Pacific Grove, CA (Fort Ord) plus others. He worked as part of a construction crew that included Herb Flaugh, Bill Johnson, Brady Johnson, Chick Johnson, ?Marvin Johnson, ??Sallee and others. They apparently were living as gypsies out of their cars and in trailers when they could find them.
Dad, apparently got into a disagreement with an Army sergeant at one of the construction sites (Fort Ord, I think) his work exemption was lifted and he was placed into the draft pool at age 33. To keep from being an infantry grunt he went to the nearest seaport and signed on in the merchant marine as a ship’s carpenter.

Or it was a major or colonel that he got into a disagreement with depending on which son you talk to about this story. His academy paperwork shows that he was a Stewards Mate not a carpenter. 

He first went to training at U. S. Maritime Service Training Station, Avalon, Catalina Island, California. He used to tell of having to run up a hill for physical training.

Service records indicate this was April-May 1944.

His first ship was the White Shoals – a seagoing tug; he was a plank owner.

He was assigned to this ship in May 1944 as a Stewards Mate several months after commissioning so I don’t believe he was a plank owner. The basic mission of seagoing tugs was to salvage and tow other ships of the fleet that have been damaged in battle or by weather. They can serve as the flagship of a salvage unit assigned to a specific task, and are frequently called on to tow floating dry docks and other non-self-propelled craft long distances.

They took it out of New Orleans, LA. Somewhere, I think San Francisco, they picked up a Floating Dry-Dock and towed it to Kwajalein, Truk, Guam, or Ulithi Marshall Islands. They used a long hawser attached to the dry dock, and they pulled the hawser it formed a long U with the dry dock about a 300-400 yards behind them.

Information found on Fold3.com shows that the White Shoals became disabled in Sep 1943 in the Panama Canal and had to be towed to Cristobal. The timing doesn't seem like he'd have been on the boat as it went through the Canal before he finished at the academy.Later it towed the Dry-Dock to Manus, Admiralty Islands, Papua New Guinea.

He got into trouble with his crewmates the first night out… He was to make coffee; well they only put chicory coffee in the galley. That is what he fixed at 4am. They threatened to keel-haul him until they found out that was all there was, so everybody learned to drink chicory; but dad was taken off the coffee making chores. He never did make good coffee.

At some point after they got the dry dock into the Pacific, he changed ships again. The SS Bernardo O’Higgins was a riveted Liberty ship (some were riveted, some welded.) He picked it up at Port Chicago, near San Francisco loaded with ammo.

A letter written to him in Aug 1944 by his wife was stamped “NOT ABOARD. RETURN TO SENDER; so we can assume he was transferred to a different ship before then.

Twenty four hours after they left Port Chicago the ship next to which they were moored blew up taking a big chunk of Port Chicago with it

The SS E. A. Bryan was the ship and this occurred 17 Jul 1944 which makes this recollection “iffy” since the floating dry dock that White Shoals was transporting didn’t get to its destination until 12 Oct 1944. Another option is that he left the White Shoals before the drydock made it to its destination; although this means he would have been on the White Shoals for only a couple of months.

The Bernardo O’Higgins was also involved in a typhoon off the Marianas. They rode it out at sea. The winds were so bad it put a 2-stack DE 14′ up on an island.

All I could find is three destroyers were sunk (not grounded) in a typhoon off Ulithi in December 1944. Another typhoon hit about June of 1945 damaging 21 ships and another typhoon hit the Pacific in August 1945.

He told of standing the early morning watch. One night they were the only ship on the ocean. As the sun came up, he saw ships in front, behind and on either side as far as the eye could see; and later watching the shore bombardment with the night lit up with tracers going overhead and knowing that there was 1 tracer/5 rounds.  This ship(?) later struck a mine

The timing for this battle would fit the Leyte Gulf Armada which occurred October-December 1944. The Bernardo O’Higgins is not listed as a ship that was damaged at http://www.usmm.org/shipsunkdamaged.html.

Two other significant events happened while he was on this vessel. First he sat before King Neptune’s Court. He told about swallowing a raw oyster with a piece of thread tied around it, every time it hit bottom they would retrieve it, and make him swallow it again. The other torment, they tied a piece of twine around his penis, attached it to a brick(?) blind folded him and made him hold the brick overboard and drop it. At the instant the twine would have given out they ran a piece of ice across his penis (the twine had already been cut.) He told that tale with glee.

The ceremony of being judged by King Neptune, still in practice today, occurs when a ship crosses the equator. 

Second, He had a piece of steel get into his left eye which happened when his ship hit a mine. I can remember vividly his describing the doctor having Dad’s eye resting on his cheek while they took the steel out the back of it.

I think he was ashore in Tacloban until his eye was healed and lost his bunk on the ship he was then on. He spent 7 or 8 weeks waiting for another berth.

The timing of this would have put it after the Battle of Leyte Gulf.

The next was a Victory ship Guatemala Victory I don’t know anything about it other than the name.

This ship was launched in July 1944. I have two letters from Clifford Collins to wife Maggie both written while he was on the Guatemala Victory one dated November 2, 1944 and the other January 10, 1945.

At some point he spent some time in Honolulu. Spoke about how the Tower at the harbor and the Royal Hawaiian were the tallest buildings in Honolulu. He learned to surf while waiting for a ship in Honolulu and promised to teach me.

The last vessel Dad was on was an ATS. He was standing watch when a Victory ship ran over them slicing off the bow of the vessel. Several of his crewmates were in the fo’c’sle, forecastle ie. front of the ship, and were lost. This occurred in San Francisco Bay. I remember him telling me that there was a party going on the victory ship, and that their vessel was running without lights.

ATS = Army Transport Service ie. the Army’s version of navy ship. In records these are also indicated by the abbreviation USAT.

I couldn't find anything of newsworthiness in the right time frame for grandpa to have been involved. But there’s a story from 1946: Victory ship Oneida Victory collided with tanker W. L. R. Emmet off Santa Barbara on 31 Mar 1946 and was severely damaged and towed to Los Angeles. It was towed to San Francisco on 16 May 1946 and laid up unrepaired at Suisun Bay. It was then scrapped in 1949 at Terminal Island. And in the 50s there was a hospital ship that was run over in San Francisco Bay by a merchant vessel; but grandpa was already back in Aztec, New Mexico by then.


To find all the facts, I scoured Fold3.com for the ship names that grandpa was serving aboard.  I found MANY references to the ships through the logs of other US Navy ships (remember the merchant marines were not part of the US Navy and their records are lacking and harder to find). So I was able to piece together a timeline of where the various ships were and what they were doing at the time.  Some of it matches up with the remembrances of the family – some don’t.

So, what’s next?  A trip to San Francisco to look up the ship’s logs for each vessel grandpa served on.  Unfortunately, these are not available via the Internet.

Witness to a Murder

My first post for this blog… You’d think I’d talk about a story that happened in my family.  But, no…


  • The date: 15 Feb 1909
  • The time: 7:00pm
  • The place: Sunset Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA
  • The victim: Frank Righetti (a newlywed of about a year)
  • Suspect 1: Elijah Benjamin Nuchols of Oxnard, CA
  • Suspect 2: Unknown?

After stepping off of a street car within a block and on his way home, Frank was accosted by two men. Frank claimed he was being robbed (the police, however, believed this was a revenge shooting) but was shot before they took anything. The first shot was in the stomach, followed immediately by a second shot to the small of the back as Frank lay on the ground. He later died from his wounds.

Several people saw the shooting, including George and Aldis Webb of 1278 Terrace Place.

And this is how I found out about this story.  While researching Mariel's side of the family I came upon an article that shows her grandfather as a 14 year old boy was a witness to this murder.

San Quentin Prisoner Photos of E. B. Nuchols
San Quentin Prisoner Photos of E. B. Nuchols

Within 20 minutes the police had E. B. Nuchols under arrest after giving evasive answers to their questioning and a .38 revolver was found on him. They took him to the hospital where the victim identified him as the shooter.

Later, Nuchols (17 years old) confessed to the shooting but claimed he was the only one involved even though witnesses saw another man run off.

Nuchols’ lawyer wanted to show that the boy’s stature (he was 6’2” tall) had something to do with his mental capacity.  They delayed the trial to get word back from his home in the east (turns out he came from Tennessee). His brother indicated that he was of an “even disposition” (coincidentally, a couple weeks later the brother’s room was broken into with several items stolen).

Three months later, it became official that the lawyer would use insanity as a defense. But, after obtaining the depositions they needed, he changed his mind and recommended a plea of guilty.

Ultimately, E. B. Nuchols pleaded guilty to 2nd degree murder and was sentenced to life at San Quentin prison.  His prison number 23634. He was paroled  January 7, 1919.

Research on Find A Grave found him having been married and having at least one child before dying in 1979.

Some of the articles can be found here.


Since I found the original story, I’ve wondered if Mariel’s grandfather (Aldis) or great grandfather (George) testified.  Unfortunately, my research has come up empty on that account.

Now this particular story doesn’t have much to do with my family history – but it is the type of research I love doing.  Check back every once in a while and you might find something else of interest.